Assessment of volatile aromatic compounds in smoke tainted cabernet sauvignon wines using a low‐cost e‐nose and machine learning modelling

Vasiliki Summerson, Claudia Gonzalez Viejo, Alexis Pang, Damir D. Torrico, Sigfredo Fuentes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Wine aroma is an important quality trait in wine, influenced by its volatile compounds. Many factors can affect the composition and levels (concentration) of volatile aromatic compounds, including the water status of grapevines, canopy management, and the effects of climate change, such as increases in ambient temperature and drought. In this study, a low‐cost and portable electronic nose (e‐nose) was used to assess wines produced from grapevines exposed to different levels of smoke contamination. Readings from the e‐nose were then used as inputs to develop two machine learning models based on artificial neural networks. Results showed that regression Model 1 displayed high accuracy in predicting the levels of volatile aromatic compounds in wine (R = 0.99). On the other hand, Model 2 also had high accuracy in predicting smoke aroma intensity from sensory evaluation (R = 0.97). Descriptive sensory analysis showed high levels of smoke taint aromas in the high‐density smoke‐exposed wine sample (HS), followed by the high‐density smoke exposure with in‐canopy misting treatment (HSM). Principal component analysis further showed that the HS treatment was associated with smoke aroma intensity, while results from the matrix showed significant negative correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between ammonia gas (sensor MQ137) and the volatile aromatic compounds octanoic acid, ethyl ester (r = −0.93), decanoic acid, ethyl ester (r = −0.94), and octanoic acid, 3‐methylbutyl ester (r = −0.89). The two models developed in this study may offer winemakers a rapid, cost‐effective, and non‐destructive tool for assessing levels of volatile aromatic compounds and the aroma qualities of wine for decision making.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5108
Issue number16
StatePublished - Aug 2 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Artificial neural networks
  • Bushfires
  • Climate change
  • Electronic nose
  • Machine learning
  • Wine quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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