Assessing the ultracentral flow puzzle in hydrodynamic modeling of heavy-ion collisions

ExTrEMe Collaboration

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


An outstanding problem in heavy-ion collisions is the inability for models to accurately describe ultracentral experimental flow data, despite that being precisely the regime where a hydrodynamic description should be most applicable. We reassess the status of this puzzle by computing the flow in ultracentral collisions obtained from multiple recent Bayesian models that were tuned to various observables in different collision systems at typical centralities. While central data can now be described with better accuracy than in previous calculations, tension with experimental observation remains and worsens as one goes to ultracentral collisions. Tuning the model parameters cannot remove this tension without destroying the fit at other centralities. As such, new elements are likely needed in the standard modeling of heavy-ion collisions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number044907
JournalPhysical Review C
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics


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