Assessing dynamic tyre forces occurring after traversing local roadway irregularities by the pothole dynamic amplification factor method

A. V. Pestererv, Lawrence Bergman, C. A. Tan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


A technique to assess the dynamic tyre forces arising after passing road surface irregularities by a vehicle modelled as a general linear multiple-degrees-of-freedom system is presented. The equations governing vibration of a vehicle moving along an uneven profile are, first, transformed to the state-space form and, then, to a system of uncoupled first-order complex differential equations. For a local roadway irregularity described functionally, solutions of all equations are found analytically and expressed in terms of a unique function of one complex variable, the so-called pothole dynamic amplification factor (DAF). The problem is shown to be decomposed into separate calculating vehicle-specific data, which are easily constructed in terms of physical and modal vehicle characteristics, and the DAF function, which does not depend on the vehicle model. The dynamic tyre forces are obtained then by simple arithmetic manipulation of the complex numbers obtained. The technique discussed is not specific to a particular vehicle model or an irregularity shape. The discussion is amply illustrated by examples of the application of the technique to the calculation of the tyre forces for three simple vehicle models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)373-384
Number of pages12
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2004



  • Peak tyre forces
  • Pothole dynamic amplification factor (DAF) function method
  • Road surface irregularities
  • Vehicle dynamics
  • Wheelbase filtering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this