A number of approaches, including holography and self-assembly, have been proposed as pathways to large area periodic structures, however, for many applications, simple self-assembled structures are not sufficient. It remains unclear how to add function to such structures in an efficient fashion, be this introduction of aperiodic features such as optical cavities and waveguides, functional materials including ferroelectrics, metals, and quantum dots, or the incorporation of high refractive index materials, for example Si and GaAs. In this paper I will focus on our latest results on the use of electrochemical deposition to form three-dimensionally periodic structures out of Ni. Details on emission from these structures can be found in . In my lecture, I will also discuss optical manipulation, and DNA-directed assembly as pathways to complex 3D structures.