Coordinated electronic pacing of implanted nerve pedicles into paralyzed laryngeal muscles has allowed selective dynamic control of abduction, adduction, and elongation of the vocal cords. Modifications of the original circuit in a cervical muscle model has added fine tuning to basic “all‐or‐none” pacing. Rehabilitation of phonation illustrated the sophisticated nature of voice and the need for restoration of fine tuning. Five mongrel dogs received nerve‐muscle pedicles into the thyroarytenoideus, cricothyroideus, and posterior cricothyroideus after denervation of one hemilarynx. Following appropriate reinnervation time, pedicles and intact recurrent laryngeal nerves were injected with currents of variable amplitudes and pulse widths to achieve graded vocal fold control while air was blown intratracheal‐ly towards the glottic chink. Videoscopic and spectral analyses indicated that artificial phonation could be restored to frequencies measured in the normal state. These experiments suggested that rehabilitation of the impaired voice by servocontrol might eventually be feasible.
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