Armed Conflict and Schooling: Evidence from the 1994 Rwandan Genocide

Richard Akresh, Damien de Walque

Research output: Working paper


Civil war, and genocide in particular, are among the most destructive of social phenomena, especially for children of school-going age. In Rwanda school enrollment trends suggest that the school system recovered quickly after 1994, but these numbers do not tell the full story. Two cross-sectional household surveys collected before and after the genocide are used to compare children in the same age group who were and were not exposed to the genocide - and their educational outcomes are substantially different. Children exposed to the genocide experienced a drop in educational achievement of almost one-half year of completed schooling, and are 15 percentage points less likely to complete third or fourth grade. Sustained effort is needed to reinforce educational institutions and offer a "second chance" to those youth most affected by the conflict.
Original languageEnglish (US)
PublisherWorld Bank Group
Number of pages38
StatePublished - May 2008

Publication series

NamePolicy Research Working Papers


  • Armed conflict
  • civil war
  • genocide
  • household surveys
  • human development
  • policy research
  • policy research working paper
  • progress
  • public services
  • war


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