Are neuroticism, cognitive vulnerabilities and self-esteem overlapping or distinct risks for depression? Evidence from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses

Benjamin L. Hankin, Zia Lakdawalla, Ingrid Latchis Carter, John R.Z. Abela, Phillipe Adams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Cognitive theories of depression (e.g., the hopelessness theory, Beck's cognitive theory, and the response styles theory) as well as trait neuroticism and low self-esteem have been shown to contribute to the onset and maintenance of depression. It is unknown the extent to which these cognitive and personality vulnerability factors overlap or are distinct. Two independent factor analytic studies addressed the degree of construct independence using measures from the three cognitive theories along with trait neuroticism, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Principal factor analysis from Study 1 (n = 950) revealed four discriminable factors. Three of the factors corresponded to each theory's vulnerability: negative cognitive style, dysfunctional attitudes, and rumination. A fourth factor consisted of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, neuroticism. Confirmatory factor analysis from Study 2 (n = 431) showed that the best fit for the data was a four factor model that repl icated the exploratory factor analyses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29-63
Number of pages35
JournalJournal of Social and Clinical Psychology
Volume26
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2007
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology

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