Archer: A history-based global routing algorithm

Muhammet Mustafa Ozdal, Martin D.F. Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Global routing is an important step in the physical design process. In this paper, we propose a new global routing algorithm Archer, which resolves some of the most common problems with the state-of-the-art global routers. It is known that concurrent global routing algorithms are typically too expensive to be applied on today's large designs, which may contain up to a million nets. On the other hand, iterative rip-up and reroute (RNR)-based algorithms are susceptible to getting stuck in local optimal solutions. In this paper, we propose an RNR-based global routing algorithm that guides the routing iterations out of local optima through effective usage of congestion histories. We also focus on the problem of how to enable a smooth tradeoff between seemingly conflicting objectives of overflow and wirelength minimization. Furthermore, we propose a Lagrangian relaxation-based bounded-length min-cost topology improvement algorithm that enables Steiner trees to change dynamically for the purpose of congestion optimization. Our experiments on public benchmarks show the effectiveness of Archer compared to other state-of-the-art global routers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4802223
Pages (from-to)528-540
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2009


  • Congestion optimization
  • Global routing
  • Lagrangian relaxation
  • Steiner tree optimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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