The study investigated 29 third- and fourth-grade teachers from four US states to understand their approaches to writing instruction and influences on their instruction. Through classroom observations and interviews with teachers, the authors identified four approaches to writing instruction: writer's workshop, traditional skills, genre-based instruction and hybrid/eclectic. The data demonstrate that process writing in the form of writer's workshop and traditional skills instruction are still occurring in schools. However, the study showed a newer trend in writing instruction - many teachers are using graphic organizers and attending to specific genres. The study showed that professional development and state standards are major influences on teachers' instruction.
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