Antimicrobial efficacy of self-locomotive manganese oxide nanozyme-doped diatom microbubbler on orthodontic brackets in vitro

Hyunsub Kim, Eun Hyuk Lee, Sang woo Lee, Yu Heng Deng, Ho Beom Kwon, Young Jun Lim, Hyunjoon Kong, Myung Joo Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Orthodontic brackets provide a favorable environment for Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation, increasing the risk of white spots and dental caries. Manganese oxide (MnO2) nanozyme-doped diatom microbubbler (DM) is a recently developed material for biofilm removal. DM can generate oxygen by catalase-mimicking activity in Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution and move with ejecting oxygen microbubbles to produce a mechanical self-cleansing effect. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of DM as a novel bracket cleaner. Methods: DM was prepared according to the protocol and analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). We treated S. mutans biofilms grown over bracket with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group), 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX group), 3% H2O2 (H2O2 group), and co-treatment with 3 mg/mL of DM and 3% H2O2 (DM group). The biofilm removal effect was analyzed using crystal violet assay, and the results were observed using SEM. The viability of S. mutans in remaining biofilms was evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Finally, we examined the effect of all materials on mature multispecies biofilms formed on debonded brackets. Results: Crystal violet assay results revealed that the CHX group removed more biofilms than the control group, and the DM group removed biofilms more effectively than the CHX group (p < 0.0001). SEM and CLSM images showed that CHX killed S. mutans but failed to remove most biofilms on brackets. However, DM effectively removed biofilms and mature multispecies biofilms on debonded brackets (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Co-treatment with DM and H2O2 is effective in removing biofilms on orthodontic brackets compared to conventional antibacterial agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number33
JournalBMC Oral Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Biofilm
  • Bracket
  • Diatom
  • Manganese oxide
  • Nanozyme

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Dentistry


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