Statement of Purpose: Titanium (Ti) and its alloys (Ti6Al4V) are widely used in dentistry and orthopedics due to their excellent biological and mechanical properties. However, their osteointegration with the tissue is limited, which may lead to implant loosening and failure. One of the strategies to improve titanium bioactivity is through surface modification. This includes functionalizating the surface with growth factors like Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2) that induce the differentiation of cells towards an osteogenic lineage, and/or changing the surface topography and/or chemistry using chemical and electrochemical methods such as etching and anodization, that can create micro and nanostructured surfaces1. However, these methods produce hazardous waste e.g. acids and bases. An alternative method is Direct Irradiation Synthesis (DIS), which is an advanced plasma synthesis technique that creates self-organized patterns of nanostructures on the surfaces. The aim of this study is to compare the surface properties and biological effect of microstructured surfaces produced by a patented chemical/electrochemical treatment to the nanopatterned surfaces produced by plasma irradiation, with or without BMP-2.