Annealing free, clean graphene transfer using alternative polymer scaffolds

Joshua D. Wood, Gregory P. Doidge, Enrique A. Carrion, Justin C. Koepke, Joshua A. Kaitz, Isha Datye, Ashkan Behnam, Jayan Hewaparakrama, Basil Aruin, Yaofeng Chen, Hefei Dong, Richard T. Haasch, Joseph W. Lyding, Eric Pop

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We examine the transfer of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with polymer scaffolds of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(phthalaldehyde) (PPA), and poly(bisphenol A carbonate) (PC). We find that optimally reactive PC scaffolds provide the cleanest graphene transfers without any annealing, after extensive comparison with optical microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Comparatively, films transferred with PLA, PPA, PMMA/PC, and PMMA have a two-fold higher roughness and a five-fold higher chemical doping. Using PC scaffolds, we demonstrate the clean transfer of CVD multilayer graphene, fluorinated graphene, and hexagonal boron nitride. Our annealing free, PC transfers enable the use of atomically-clean nanomaterials in biomolecule encapsulation and flexible electronic applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number055302
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jun 6 2015


  • Chemical vapor deposition
  • Contaminants
  • Graphene
  • Layering
  • Polymers
  • Transfer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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