A new cross-anisotropic model is proposed to predict the performance of granular bases in flexible pavements. A cross-anisotropic representation has different material properties (i.e., elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio) assigned in the horizontal and vertical directions. Repeated-load triaxial tests with vertical and lateral deformation measurements can be used to establish these anisotropic properties. Simple stress-dependent granular material models, obtained from analysis of the laboratory test data, are used in a nonlinear finite element program, named GT-PAVE, to predict pavement responses. The horizontal and shear stiffnesses are typically found to be less than the vertical. The nonlinear anisotropic approach is shown to account effectively for the dilative behavior observed under the wheel load and the effects of compaction-induced residual stresses. The main advantage of using a cross-anisotropic model in the base is the drastic reduction or elimination of significant tensile stresses generally predicted by isotropic linear elastic layered programs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering