Anesthetic Considerations for Amphibians

Mark A. Mitchell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The popularity of amphibians in research, zoological exhibits, and as pets is on the rise. With this increased popularity comes a need for veterinarians to develop methods for managing these animals for various diagnostic and surgical procedures. For many of these procedures, the provision of anesthesia is a must. Fortunately, there are a number of different anesthetics available to the veterinary clinician for anesthetizing amphibians, including tricaine methanesulfonate, clove oil, propofol, isoflurane, and ketamine. In addition to the variety of anesthetics at our disposal, there is also a wider range of methods for delivering the anesthetics than are generally available for higher vertebrates, including immersion, topical, and intracoelomic routes of delivery. The purpose of this article is to review the different methods that can be used to successfully manage an amphibian patient through an anesthetic event.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)40-49
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Exotic Pet Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2009


  • amphibian
  • anesthesia
  • anesthetic
  • anuran
  • monitoring
  • urodelan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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