A novel one-step method for determining kinetic rates and equilibrium binding affinities, termed analyte gradient-surface plasmon resonance (AG-SPR) is described. A gradient maker or HPLC pump system is used to produce a gradient so that, under continuous-flow conditions, the concentration of analyte passing over the sensor surface increases linearly with time. The rate at which analyte binds to the immobilized receptors is measured by monitoring the change in the surface plasmon resonance minimum as the analyte concentration increases. Kinetic rates are determined by fitting the data to a modified version of the previously described two-compartment model (Schuck, P.; Minton, A. P. Anal. Biochem. 1996, 240, 262-272). Numerical simulations indicate that AG-SPR results in accurate estimates of both kinetic rates and equilibrium affinities regardless of the intrinsic kinetics of the interaction and can be used for systems under mass transport limitations. Simulations also indicate that AG-SPR can be used to characterize interactions that do not obey pseudo-first-order kinetics due to the presence of a heterogeneous receptor population. Experimentally, the interaction of cytochrome c with cytochrome b5 immobilized on a negatively charged monolayer has been characterized by AG-SPR, and both the specific and the nonspecific interactions were quantitatively analyzed. This new technique is advantageous over traditional SPR methods because it eliminates the need for surface regeneration and is significantly faster than traditional titration experiments.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry