Analysis of the roles of microporosity and BMP-2 on multiple measures of bone regeneration and healing in calcium phosphate scaffolds

Samantha J. Polak, Sheeny K Lan Levengood, Matthew B. Wheeler, Aaron J. Maki, Sherrie G. Clark, Amy J Wagoner Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Osteoinductive agents, such as BMP-2, are known to improve bone formation when combined with scaffolds. Microporosity (<20 μm) has also been shown to influence bone regeneration in calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds. However, many studies use only the term "osteoconductive" to describe the effects of BMP-2 and microporosity on bone formation, and do not assess the degree of healing that occurred. The objective of this study was to quantify the influence of BMP-2 and microporosity on bone regeneration and healing in biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds using multiple measures including bone volume fraction, radial distribution, and specific surface area. These measures were quantitatively compared by analyzing microcomputed tomography data and used to formally define and assess healing. A custom image segmentation program was used to segment >100 samples, with 900 images each, that were implanted in porcine mandibular defects for 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. The assessment of healing presented in this work demonstrates the level of detail possible in evaluating scaffold-guided bone regeneration. The analysis shows that BMP-2 and microporosity accelerate healing up to 4-fold. BMP-2 and microporosity were shown to have different and complementary roles in bone formation that effect the time needed for a defect to heal.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1760-1771
Number of pages12
JournalActa Biomaterialia
Volume7
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2011

Keywords

  • BMP
  • Calcium phosphate
  • Microstructure
  • Osteoinduction
  • Scaffold

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology

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