Analysis of the multitrait-multimethod matrix: Some limitations and an alternative

Arne L. Kalleberg, James R. Kluegel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Discusses the multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) matrix which is widely used by researchers in applied psychology to assess the convergent and discriminant validity of constructs. A path analytic conceptualization of MTMM matrix analysis shows that the appropriateness of the inferences drawn on the basis of this method is heavily dependent upon the extent to which its underlying assumptions are fulfilled. To test these assumptions, as well as to interpret the relationships in the MTMM matrix, it is recommended that a confirmatory factor analytic model be used. This technique is illustrated by a reanalysis of J. Wanous and E. Lawler's MTMM matrix; the reanalysis shows how faulty inferences were drawn due to a violation of the assumptions underlying the matrix. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Applied Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1975
Externally publishedYes


  • limitations & confirmatory factor analytic model as alternative, analysis of multitrait-multimethod matrix

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


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