Analysis of low frequency scattering from penetrable scatterers

S. Y. Chen, Cho Chew Weng Cho Chew, J. M. Song, J. S. Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper, we present a method for solving the surface integral equation using the method of moments (MoM) at very low frequencies, which finds applications in geoscience. The nature of the Helmholtz decomposition leads us to choose loop-tree basis functions to represent the surface current. Careful analysis of the frequency scaling property of each operator allows us to introduce a frequency normalization scheme to reduce the condition number of the MoM matrix. After frequency normalization, the MoM matrix can be solved using LU decomposition. The poor spectral properties of the matrix, however, makes it ill-suited for an iterative solver. A basis rearrangement is used to improve this property of the MoM matrix. The basis function rearrangement(BFR), which involves inverting the connection matrix, can be viewed as a pre-conditioner. The complexity of BFR is reduced to O(N), allowing this method to be combined with iterative solvers. Both rectilinear and curvilinear patches have been used in the simulations. The use of curvilinear patches reduces the number of unknowns significantly, thereby making the algorithm more efficient. This method is capable of solving Maxwell's equations from quasistatic to electrodynamic frequency range. This capability is of great importance in geophysical applications because the sizes of the simulated objects can range from a small fraction of a wavelength to several wavelengths.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)726-735
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Convergence
  • Curvilinear patch
  • Loop-tree basis
  • Low-frequency
  • Penetrable scatterer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)


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