Analysis of charge-pump phase-locked loops

Pavan Kumar Hanumolu, Merrick Brownlee, Kartikeya Mayaram, Un Ku Moon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper, we present an exact analysis for third-order charge-pump phase-locked loops using state equations. Both the large-signal lock acquisition process and the small-signal linear tracking behavior are described using this analysis. The nonlinear state equations are linearized for the small-signal condition and the z-domain noise transfer functions are derived. A comparison to some of the existing analysis methods such as the impulse-invariant transformation and s-domain analysis is provided. The effect of the loop parameters and the reference frequency on the loop phase margin and stability is analyzed. The analysis is verified using behavioral simulations in MATLAB and SPECTRE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1665-1674
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Hardware and Architecture


Dive into the research topics of 'Analysis of charge-pump phase-locked loops'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this