An inside-out view of bubbles

You Hua Chu, Robert A. Gruendl, Martín A. Guerrero

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


Fast stellar winds can sweep up ambient media and form bubbles. The evolution of a bubble is largely controlled by the content and physical conditions of the shocked fast wind in its interior. This hot gas was not clearly observed until the recent advent of Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories. To date, di use X-ray emission has been unambiguously detected from two circumstellar bubbles blown by WR stars, four planetary nebulae, and two superbubbles blown by young clusters. Model fits to the X-ray spectra show that the circumstellar bubbles are dominated by hot gas with low temperatures (≤ 3 × 106 K), while the interstellar bubbles contain significant fractions of hotter gas (≥ 5 × 106 K). In all cases, large discrepancies in the X-ray luminosity are found between observations and conventional models of bubbles. Future theoretical models of bubbles need to re-examine the validity of heat conduction and take into account realistic microscopic processes such as mass loading from dense clumps/knots and turbulent mixing. Chandra ACIS-S observation of NGC6888 will shed light on these astrophysical processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)62-67
Number of pages6
JournalRevista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica: Serie de Conferencias
StatePublished - 2003
EventWinds, Bubbles and Explosions: A Conference to Honor John Dyson - Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico
Duration: Sep 9 2002Sep 13 2002


  • H II regions
  • ISM: bubbles
  • Planetary nebulae
  • Stars: Wolf-Rayet
  • Stars: mass loss
  • X-rays: ISM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics


Dive into the research topics of 'An inside-out view of bubbles'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this