An experiment to search for dark-matter interactions using sodium iodide detectors

The COSINE-100 Collaboration

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

Abstract

Observations of galaxies and primordial radiation suggest that the Universe is made mostly of non-luminous dark matter1,2. Several new types of fundamental particle have been proposed as candidates for dark matter3, such as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs)4,5. These particles would be expected to interact with nuclei in suitable detector materials on Earth, for example, causing them to recoil. However, no definitive signal from such dark-matter interactions has been detected despite concerted efforts by many collaborations6. One exception is the much-debated claim by the DAMA collaboration of a statistically significant (more than nine standard deviations) annual modulation in the rate of nuclear interaction events. Annual modulation is expected because of the variation in Earth’s velocity relative to the Galaxy’s dark-matter halo that arises from Earth’s orbital motion around the Sun. DAMA observed a modulation in the rate of interaction events in their detector7–9 with a period and phase consistent with that expected for WIMPs10–12. Several groups have been working to develop experiments with the aim of reproducing DAMA’s results using the same target medium (sodium iodide)13–17. To determine whether there is evidence for an excess of events above the expected background in sodium iodide and to look for evidence of an annual modulation, the COSINE-100 experiment uses sodium iodide as the target medium to carry out a model-independent test of DAMA’s claim. Here we report results from the initial operation of the COSINE-100 experiment related to the first task18,19. We observe no excess of signal-like events above the expected background in the first 59.5 days of data from COSINE-100. Assuming the so-called standard dark-matter halo model, this result rules out WIMP–nucleon interactions as the cause of the annual modulation observed by the DAMA collaboration20–23. The exclusion limit on the WIMP–sodium interaction cross-section is 1.14 × 10−40 cm2 for 10-GeV c−2 WIMPs at a 90% confidence level. The COSINE-100 experiment will continue to collect data for two more years, enabling a model-independent test of the annual modulation observed by the DAMA collaboration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)83-86
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume564
Issue number7734
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 6 2018

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Sodium Iodide
Elementary Particles
Galaxies
Radiation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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An experiment to search for dark-matter interactions using sodium iodide detectors. / The COSINE-100 Collaboration.

In: Nature, Vol. 564, No. 7734, 06.12.2018, p. 83-86.

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

The COSINE-100 Collaboration. / An experiment to search for dark-matter interactions using sodium iodide detectors. In: Nature. 2018 ; Vol. 564, No. 7734. pp. 83-86.
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abstract = "Observations of galaxies and primordial radiation suggest that the Universe is made mostly of non-luminous dark matter1,2. Several new types of fundamental particle have been proposed as candidates for dark matter3, such as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs)4,5. These particles would be expected to interact with nuclei in suitable detector materials on Earth, for example, causing them to recoil. However, no definitive signal from such dark-matter interactions has been detected despite concerted efforts by many collaborations6. One exception is the much-debated claim by the DAMA collaboration of a statistically significant (more than nine standard deviations) annual modulation in the rate of nuclear interaction events. Annual modulation is expected because of the variation in Earth’s velocity relative to the Galaxy’s dark-matter halo that arises from Earth’s orbital motion around the Sun. DAMA observed a modulation in the rate of interaction events in their detector7–9 with a period and phase consistent with that expected for WIMPs10–12. Several groups have been working to develop experiments with the aim of reproducing DAMA’s results using the same target medium (sodium iodide)13–17. To determine whether there is evidence for an excess of events above the expected background in sodium iodide and to look for evidence of an annual modulation, the COSINE-100 experiment uses sodium iodide as the target medium to carry out a model-independent test of DAMA’s claim. Here we report results from the initial operation of the COSINE-100 experiment related to the first task18,19. We observe no excess of signal-like events above the expected background in the first 59.5 days of data from COSINE-100. Assuming the so-called standard dark-matter halo model, this result rules out WIMP–nucleon interactions as the cause of the annual modulation observed by the DAMA collaboration20–23. The exclusion limit on the WIMP–sodium interaction cross-section is 1.14 × 10−40 cm2 for 10-GeV c−2 WIMPs at a 90{\%} confidence level. The COSINE-100 experiment will continue to collect data for two more years, enabling a model-independent test of the annual modulation observed by the DAMA collaboration.",
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T1 - An experiment to search for dark-matter interactions using sodium iodide detectors

AU - The COSINE-100 Collaboration

AU - Adhikari, Govinda

AU - Adhikari, Pushparaj

AU - de Souza, Estella Barbosa

AU - Carlin, Nelson

AU - Choi, Seonho

AU - Djamal, Mitra

AU - Ezeribe, Anthony C.

AU - Ha, Chang Hyon

AU - Hahn, Insik

AU - Hubbard, Antonia J.F.

AU - Jeon, Eunju

AU - Jo, Jay Hyun

AU - Joo, Hanwool

AU - Kang, Woon Gu

AU - Kang, Woosik

AU - Kauer, Matthew

AU - Kim, Bonghee

AU - Kim, Hongjoo

AU - Kim, Hyounggyu

AU - Kim, Kyungwon

AU - Kim, Nam Young

AU - Kim, Sun Kee

AU - Kim, Yeongduk

AU - Kim, Yong Hamb

AU - Ko, Young Ju

AU - Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

AU - Lee, Hyun Su

AU - Lee, Jaison

AU - Lee, Jooyoung

AU - Lee, Moo Hyun

AU - Leonard, Douglas S.

AU - Lynch, Warren A.

AU - Maruyama, Reina H.

AU - Mouton, Frederic

AU - Olsen, Stephen L.

AU - Park, Byungju

AU - Park, Hyang Kyu

AU - Park, Hyeonseo

AU - Park, Jungsic

AU - Park, Kangsoon

AU - Pettus, Walter C.

AU - Prihtiadi, Hafizh

AU - Ra, Sejin

AU - Rott, Carsten

AU - Scarff, Andrew

AU - Shin, Keon Ah

AU - Spooner, Neil J.C.

AU - Thompson, William G.

AU - Yang, Liang

AU - Yong, Seok Hyun

PY - 2018/12/6

Y1 - 2018/12/6

N2 - Observations of galaxies and primordial radiation suggest that the Universe is made mostly of non-luminous dark matter1,2. Several new types of fundamental particle have been proposed as candidates for dark matter3, such as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs)4,5. These particles would be expected to interact with nuclei in suitable detector materials on Earth, for example, causing them to recoil. However, no definitive signal from such dark-matter interactions has been detected despite concerted efforts by many collaborations6. One exception is the much-debated claim by the DAMA collaboration of a statistically significant (more than nine standard deviations) annual modulation in the rate of nuclear interaction events. Annual modulation is expected because of the variation in Earth’s velocity relative to the Galaxy’s dark-matter halo that arises from Earth’s orbital motion around the Sun. DAMA observed a modulation in the rate of interaction events in their detector7–9 with a period and phase consistent with that expected for WIMPs10–12. Several groups have been working to develop experiments with the aim of reproducing DAMA’s results using the same target medium (sodium iodide)13–17. To determine whether there is evidence for an excess of events above the expected background in sodium iodide and to look for evidence of an annual modulation, the COSINE-100 experiment uses sodium iodide as the target medium to carry out a model-independent test of DAMA’s claim. Here we report results from the initial operation of the COSINE-100 experiment related to the first task18,19. We observe no excess of signal-like events above the expected background in the first 59.5 days of data from COSINE-100. Assuming the so-called standard dark-matter halo model, this result rules out WIMP–nucleon interactions as the cause of the annual modulation observed by the DAMA collaboration20–23. The exclusion limit on the WIMP–sodium interaction cross-section is 1.14 × 10−40 cm2 for 10-GeV c−2 WIMPs at a 90% confidence level. The COSINE-100 experiment will continue to collect data for two more years, enabling a model-independent test of the annual modulation observed by the DAMA collaboration.

AB - Observations of galaxies and primordial radiation suggest that the Universe is made mostly of non-luminous dark matter1,2. Several new types of fundamental particle have been proposed as candidates for dark matter3, such as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs)4,5. These particles would be expected to interact with nuclei in suitable detector materials on Earth, for example, causing them to recoil. However, no definitive signal from such dark-matter interactions has been detected despite concerted efforts by many collaborations6. One exception is the much-debated claim by the DAMA collaboration of a statistically significant (more than nine standard deviations) annual modulation in the rate of nuclear interaction events. Annual modulation is expected because of the variation in Earth’s velocity relative to the Galaxy’s dark-matter halo that arises from Earth’s orbital motion around the Sun. DAMA observed a modulation in the rate of interaction events in their detector7–9 with a period and phase consistent with that expected for WIMPs10–12. Several groups have been working to develop experiments with the aim of reproducing DAMA’s results using the same target medium (sodium iodide)13–17. To determine whether there is evidence for an excess of events above the expected background in sodium iodide and to look for evidence of an annual modulation, the COSINE-100 experiment uses sodium iodide as the target medium to carry out a model-independent test of DAMA’s claim. Here we report results from the initial operation of the COSINE-100 experiment related to the first task18,19. We observe no excess of signal-like events above the expected background in the first 59.5 days of data from COSINE-100. Assuming the so-called standard dark-matter halo model, this result rules out WIMP–nucleon interactions as the cause of the annual modulation observed by the DAMA collaboration20–23. The exclusion limit on the WIMP–sodium interaction cross-section is 1.14 × 10−40 cm2 for 10-GeV c−2 WIMPs at a 90% confidence level. The COSINE-100 experiment will continue to collect data for two more years, enabling a model-independent test of the annual modulation observed by the DAMA collaboration.

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