Commercial and technical grades of 10 insecticides were evaluated for genotoxicity with Salmonella typhimurium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae directly and following plant and animal activation. Field-grade formulations of each insecticide were also tested for mutations at the waxy (wx) locus in Zea mays in situ. Carbofuran, chloropyrifos, curacron, metham and phorate were negative in all assays. Ethoprop and terbufos were each positive in 1 assay, and chlordane, fonofos and heptachlor were each positive in 2 assays. Fonofos and terbufos were positive directly and following animal activation while chlordane and heptachlor were positive following both plant and animal activation. Chlordane, ethoprop, and heptachlor were positive in Z. mays.
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