Commercial and technical grades of 11 herbicides and 13 combinations of commercial grade herbicides were evaluated for their genotoxic properties with Salmonella typhimurium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae directly and following plant and animal activation, or with Zea mays. The herbicides were related by their use in commercial corn (maize) production. Commercial grade formulations of each herbicide and combination of herbicides were also evaluated in situ with the pollen waxy locus assay of Z. mays. Eradicane and bifenox were negative in all assays. Alachlor, propachlor, procyazine and SD50093 (a formulation of cyanazine plus atrazine) were positive in one assay. Cyanazine, dicamba and metolachlor were positive in 2 assays. Atrazine, simazine and butylate were tested only in situ. Atrazine and simazine were positive and butylate was negative. Of the combinations of herbicides evaluated with the 3 genetic assays, alachlor plus bifenox and procyazine plus metolachlor were positive in 1 assay and metolachlor plus atrazine was positive in 2 assays. Of the combinations of herbicides evaluated only in situ, butylate plus atrazine, eradicane plus atrazine, eradicane plus cyanazine and metolachlor plus cyanazine were positive while butylate plus cyanazine was negative.
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