An Enhanced Augmented Electric-Field Integral Equation Formulation for Dielectric Objects

Tian Xia, Hui Gan, Michael Wei, Weng Cho Chew, Henning Braunisch, Zhiguo Qian, Kemal Aygun, Alaeddin Aydiner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A full-wave surface integral equation (SIE) method based on the augmented electric-field integral equation (A-EFIE) for dielectric objects with low-frequency stability is presented in this paper. Motivated by the A-EFIE formulation for perfect electric conductor (PEC), the internal and external problems are both augmented with the current continuity equation and renormalized to eliminate the low-frequency breakdown. Although the magnetic-field integral equation operator κ is free of low-frequency breakdown, its matrix form is ill-conditioned and unsolvable if the traditional Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) basis function is used as the testing and basis functions. As a remedy, the Buffa-Christiansen (BC) basis function is introduced to alleviate this testing issue. After this treatment, the matrix form of operator κ is well conditioned. To solve problems with a large number of unknowns, a preconditioning scheme is introduced to accelerate the convergence and the mixed-form fast multipole algorithm (FMA) is adopted to accelerate the matrix vector product.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7423678
Pages (from-to)2339-2347
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2016


  • Augmented electric field integral equation
  • Buffa-Christiansen basis
  • dielectric solver
  • low frequency
  • preconditioner

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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