An augmented electric field integral equation for high-speed interconnect analysis

Zhi Guo Qian, Weng Cho Chew

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The conventional electric field integral equation (EFIE) is augmented by including charge as the extra unknown, so that the contributions of the vector potential and the scalar potential are separated to avoid the imbalance at low frequencies. With the frequency scaling and the direct enforcement of the current continuity constraint, the new augmented EFIE is free of low-frequency breakdown for interconnect analysis. Mathematically, it can be categorized as a generalized saddle-point problem. The new equation is verified by numerical examples.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2658-2662
Number of pages5
JournalMicrowave and Optical Technology Letters
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2008


  • Augmented EFIE
  • EFIE
  • Loop-tree decomposition
  • Low-frequency breakdown
  • RWG

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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