An alternative reconceptualization of procedural and conceptual knowledge

Arthur J. Baroody, Yingying Feil, Amanda R. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


After evaluating a proposal by Jon Star (2005) that mathematics educators reconceptualize the construct of procedural knowledge, we offer an alternative reconceptualization based on an extension and amalgamation of his and other conceptualizations of procedural knowledge and conceptual knowledge. We then propose some implications for research suggested by our critique and our alternative perspective.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)115-131
Number of pages17
JournalJournal for Research in Mathematics Education
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2007


  • Adaptive expertise
  • Big ideas
  • Conceptual knowledge
  • Flexibility
  • Procedural knowledge

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mathematics (miscellaneous)
  • Education


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