Biotransformation of various micropollutants (MPs) has been found to be positively correlated with nitrification in activated sludge communities. To further elucidate the roles played by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), we investigated the biotransformation capabilities of an NOB pure culture (Nitrobacter sp.) and an AOB (Nitrosomonas europaea)/NOB (Nitrobacter sp.) coculture for 15 MPs, whose biotransformation was reported previously to be associated with nitrification. The NOB pure culture did not biotransform any investigated MP, whereas the AOB/NOB coculture was capable of biotransforming six MPs (i.e., asulam, bezafibrate, fenhexamid, furosemide, indomethacin, and rufinamide). Transformation products (TPs) were identified, and tentative structures were proposed. Inhibition studies with octyne, an ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) inhibitor, suggested that AMO was the responsible enzyme for MP transformation that occurred cometabolically. For the first time, hydroxylamine, a key intermediate of all aerobic ammonia oxidizers, was found to react with several MPs at concentrations typically occurring in AOB batch cultures. All of these MPs were also biotransformed by the AOB/NOB coculture. Moreover, the same asulam TPs were detected in both biotransformation and hydroxylamine-treated abiotic transformation experiments, whereas rufinamide TPs formed from biological transformation were not detected during hydroxylamine-mediated abiotic transformation, which was consistent with the inability of rufinamide abiotic transformation by hydroxylamine. Thus, in addition to cometabolism likely carried out by AMO, an abiotic transformation route indirectly mediated by AMO might also contribute to MP biotransformation by AOB.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry