Amino acid digestibility in heated soybean meal fed to growing pigs

J. C. González-Vega, B. G. Kim, J. K. Htoo, A. Lemme, H. H. Stein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Heat treatment of soybean meal (SBM) is necessary to reduce the concentration of trypsin inhibitors, but excessive heat treatment may reduce AA concentration and digestibility because AA can be destroyed by the Maillard reaction. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of heat treatment of SBM on apparent ileal digestibility and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA by growing pigs. A source of conventional dehulled SBM (48.5% CP) was divided into 4 batches. One batch was not additionally heated, 1 batch was autoclaved at 125°C for 15 min, 1 batch was autoclaved at 125°C for 30 min, and 1 batch was oven-dried at 125°C for 30 min. Four SBM-cornstarch diets were formulated, and each of the 4 batches of SBM was used as the sole source of dietary AA in 1 diet. A N-free diet was used to estimate basal endogenous losses of AA. Ten growing barrows with an initial BW of 25.3 ± 2.0 kg were individually fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. Pigs were allotted to treatments in a replicated 5 × 5 balanced Latin square design with 5 diets and 5 periods. Each period lasted 7 d, and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results of the experiment indicated that the apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and all AA decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as the time of autoclaving increased from 0 to 30 min. The concentration of furosine and the color of samples of SBM indicated that autoclaving resulted in a Maillard reaction in the SBM. However, oven drying at 125°C for 30 min did not change (P > 0.10) the SID of CP and AA in the SBM or the furosine concentration, and the color in the ovendried sample indicated that this sample was not heat damaged. In conclusion, the digestibility of all AA in autoclaved SBM is linearly reduced as the autoclaving time increases from 0 to 30 min. The reason for these changes is most likely that autoclaving at 125°C results in Maillard reactions in SBM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3617-3625
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of animal science
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2011


  • Amino acid
  • Digestibility
  • Heat
  • Maillard reaction
  • Pig
  • Soybean meal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics


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