Altitudinal precipitation gradients in the tropics from tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) precipitation radar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) climatology shows variability in surface precipitation rate-elevation relationships across the tropics. Vertical profiles of radar reflectivity and profiles of specific humidity and cross-barrier moisture fluxes during precipitation events from the Interim European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis reveal four precipitation regimes with distinct precipitation mechanisms: 1) a tropical regime with a broad precipitation maximum at ∼ 1500m where convection is triggered by orographic lifting; 2) a trade winds regime with a near-sea level precipitation maximum dominated by forced ascent due to prevailing winds and the presence of dry air aloft; 3) a wet monsoon regime with a low-elevation precipitation maximum driven by efficient precipitation generation, large low-level crossbarrier moisture fluxes, and multiple convective modes; and 4) a dry monsoon regime with a high-elevation precipitation maximum reflecting intense convection and stratiform rain with a strong evaporation signature. In general, surface precipitation-elevation relationships across the tropics feature lower-elevation precipitation maxima relative to typical midlatitude regimes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)441-448
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Hydrometeorology
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

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TRMM
radar
moisture flux
monsoon
convection
trade wind
reflectivity
vertical profile
climatology
humidity
evaporation
tropics
sea level
weather
air

Keywords

  • Climatology
  • Complex terrain
  • Satellite observations
  • Tropics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science

Cite this

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title = "Altitudinal precipitation gradients in the tropics from tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) precipitation radar",
abstract = "A Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) climatology shows variability in surface precipitation rate-elevation relationships across the tropics. Vertical profiles of radar reflectivity and profiles of specific humidity and cross-barrier moisture fluxes during precipitation events from the Interim European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis reveal four precipitation regimes with distinct precipitation mechanisms: 1) a tropical regime with a broad precipitation maximum at ∼ 1500m where convection is triggered by orographic lifting; 2) a trade winds regime with a near-sea level precipitation maximum dominated by forced ascent due to prevailing winds and the presence of dry air aloft; 3) a wet monsoon regime with a low-elevation precipitation maximum driven by efficient precipitation generation, large low-level crossbarrier moisture fluxes, and multiple convective modes; and 4) a dry monsoon regime with a high-elevation precipitation maximum reflecting intense convection and stratiform rain with a strong evaporation signature. In general, surface precipitation-elevation relationships across the tropics feature lower-elevation precipitation maxima relative to typical midlatitude regimes.",
keywords = "Climatology, Complex terrain, Satellite observations, Tropics",
author = "Anders, {Alison M} and Stephen Nesbitt",
year = "2015",
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AU - Anders, Alison M

AU - Nesbitt, Stephen

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N2 - A Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) climatology shows variability in surface precipitation rate-elevation relationships across the tropics. Vertical profiles of radar reflectivity and profiles of specific humidity and cross-barrier moisture fluxes during precipitation events from the Interim European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis reveal four precipitation regimes with distinct precipitation mechanisms: 1) a tropical regime with a broad precipitation maximum at ∼ 1500m where convection is triggered by orographic lifting; 2) a trade winds regime with a near-sea level precipitation maximum dominated by forced ascent due to prevailing winds and the presence of dry air aloft; 3) a wet monsoon regime with a low-elevation precipitation maximum driven by efficient precipitation generation, large low-level crossbarrier moisture fluxes, and multiple convective modes; and 4) a dry monsoon regime with a high-elevation precipitation maximum reflecting intense convection and stratiform rain with a strong evaporation signature. In general, surface precipitation-elevation relationships across the tropics feature lower-elevation precipitation maxima relative to typical midlatitude regimes.

AB - A Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) climatology shows variability in surface precipitation rate-elevation relationships across the tropics. Vertical profiles of radar reflectivity and profiles of specific humidity and cross-barrier moisture fluxes during precipitation events from the Interim European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis reveal four precipitation regimes with distinct precipitation mechanisms: 1) a tropical regime with a broad precipitation maximum at ∼ 1500m where convection is triggered by orographic lifting; 2) a trade winds regime with a near-sea level precipitation maximum dominated by forced ascent due to prevailing winds and the presence of dry air aloft; 3) a wet monsoon regime with a low-elevation precipitation maximum driven by efficient precipitation generation, large low-level crossbarrier moisture fluxes, and multiple convective modes; and 4) a dry monsoon regime with a high-elevation precipitation maximum reflecting intense convection and stratiform rain with a strong evaporation signature. In general, surface precipitation-elevation relationships across the tropics feature lower-elevation precipitation maxima relative to typical midlatitude regimes.

KW - Climatology

KW - Complex terrain

KW - Satellite observations

KW - Tropics

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