Algorithmic encoding of adaptive responses in temperature-sensing multimaterial architectures

Weichen Li, Yue Wang, Tian Chen, Xiaojia Shelly Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We envision programmable matters that can alter their physical properties in desirable manners based on user input or autonomous sensing. This vision motivates the pursuit of mechanical metamaterials that interact with the environment in a programmable fashion. However, this has not been systematically achieved for soft metamaterials because of the highly nonlinear deformation and underdevelopment of rational design strategies. Here, we use computational morphogenesis and multimaterial polymer 3D printing to systematically create soft metamaterials with arbitrarily programmable temperature-switchable nonlinear mechanical responses under large deformations. This is made possible by harnessing the distinct glass transition temperatures of different polymers, which, when optimally synthesized, produce local and giant stiffness changes in a controllable manner. Featuring complex geometries, the generated structures and metamaterials exhibit fundamentally different yet programmable nonlinear force-displacement relations and deformation patterns as temperature varies. The rational design and fabrication establish an objective-oriented synthesis of metamaterials with freely tunable thermally adaptive behaviors. This imbues structures and materials with environment-aware intelligence. 3D-printed composite materials are algorithmically designed to intelligently change their behavior by sensing ambient temperature.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbereadk0620
JournalScience Advances
Issue number47
StatePublished - Nov 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


Dive into the research topics of 'Algorithmic encoding of adaptive responses in temperature-sensing multimaterial architectures'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this