Air emissions from animal feeding operations: Can state rules help?

Jody M. Endres, Margaret Rosso Grossman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Intensive livestock operations raise large numbers of animals in confined quarters, and their presence affects the environment in rural communities and beyond. Some air emissions from, animal feeding operations (AFOS) affect neighbors, and other emissions have national and even global impacts. Because agricultural operations have been considered minor sources of air pollutants, emissions from most AFOs have escaped regulation under the federal CAA and its state implementation programs. State regulation of AFOs often focuses on water quality, with incidental provisions for air quality. Even states with measures for specific substances (odor, hydrogen sulfide) emitted by AFOs lack comprehensive regulatory systems. The seven states surveyed in this article have enacted a number of measures to govern air emissions from livestock facilities. When research, encouraged by the US EPA, has developed accurate methods for measuring air emissions, AFOs can expect federal regulation under the CAA, followed by state implementation. In developing that regulation, the EPA may be advised to consider effective elements in state regulatory programs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-51
Number of pages51
JournalPenn State Environmental Law Review
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Law


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