Age-Related Changes in the Avian Primary Lymphoid Organs (Thymus and Bursa of Fabricius)

Emilia Ciriaco, Pablo P. Píñera, Belén Díaz-Esnal, Rosaria Laurà

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The avian primary lymphoid organs, the thymus and the bursa of Fabricius, undergo age-dependent changes leading in some cases to the complete atrophy of the organ. Nevertheless, the timetable of the involutive process as well as the consequences in the structure and functionality of the organs vary largely in the time frame and structural changes among species. On the other hand, and in contrast with the large body of literature reporting the structural and functional changes in mammalian primary lymphoid organs, the age-dependent changes in avian thymus and bursa of Fabricius are scarce, fragmentary, and heterogeneous. This article reviews the current literature on this topic, and focuses primarily on the involution of the bursa of Fabricius.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)482-487
Number of pages6
JournalMicroscopy research and technique
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 15 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Aging
  • Avian thymus
  • Bursa of Fabricius

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Histology
  • Instrumentation
  • Medical Laboratory Technology


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