African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of ASFV strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type-specific protective immunity in pigs. Available data from vaccination/challenge experiments in pigs indicate that ASF protective immunity may be haemadsorption inhibition (HAI) serotype-specific. Recently, we have shown that two ASFV proteins, CD2v (EP402R) and C-type lectin (EP153R), are necessary and sufficient for mediating HAI serological specificity (Malogolovkin et al., 2015).. Here, using ASFV inter-serotypic chimeric viruses and vaccination/challenge experiments in pigs, we demonstrate that serotype-specific CD2v and/or C-type lectin proteins are important for protection against homologous ASFV infection. Thus, these viral proteins represent significant protective antigens for ASFV that should be targeted in future vaccine design and development. Additionally, these data support the concept of HAI serotype-specific protective immunity.
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