African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large, intracytoplasmically- replicating DNA arbovirus and the sole member of the family Asfarviridae. It is the etiologic agent of a highly lethal hemorrhagic disease of domestic swine and therefore extensively studied to elucidate the structures, genes, and mechanisms affecting viral replication in the host, virus-host interactions, and viral virulence. Increasingly apparent is the complexity with which ASFV replicates and interacts with the host cell during infection. ASFV encodes novel genes involved in host immune response modulation, viral virulence for domestic swine, and in the ability of ASFV to replicate and spread in its tick vector. The unique nature of ASFV has contributed to a broader understanding of DNA virus/host interactions.