Adversarial examples (AEs) against deep neural networks (DNNs) raise wide concerns about the robustness of DNNs. Existing detection mechanisms are often limited to a given attack algorithm. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop a robust detection approach that remains effective for a large group of attack algorithms. In addition, most of the existing defences only perform well for small images (e.g. MNIST and Canadian institute for advanced research (CIFAR)) rather than large images (e.g. ImageNet). In this paper, the authors propose a robust and effective defence method for analysing the sensitivity of various AEs, especially in a much harder case (large images). Their method first creates a feature map from the input space to the new feature space, by utilising 19 different feature mapping methods. Then, a detector is learned with the machine-learning algorithm to recognise the unique distribution of AEs. Their extensive evaluations on their proposed detector show that their detector can achieve: (i) low false-positive rate (<1%), (ii) high true-positive rate (higher than 98%), (iii) low overhead (<0.1 s per input), and (iv) good robustness (work well across different learning models, attack algorithms, and parameters), which demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed detector in practise.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition