The origin, evolution, and outlook of guidance as a path and trajectory manager for aerospace systems is addressed. A survey of theoretical developments in the field is presented demonstrating the advances in guidance system functionality built upon inertial navigation technology. Open-loop and closed-loop approaches for short-range systems, long-range systems and entry systems are described for both civilian and military applications. Over time, guidance system development has transitioned from passive and open-loop systems to active, closed-loop systems. Significant advances in onboard processing power have improved guidance system capabilities, shifting the algorithmic computational burden to onboard systems and setting the stage for autonomous aerospace systems. Seminal advances in aerospace guidance are described, highlighting the advancements in guidance and resulting performance improvements in aerospace systems.