The future of medical diagnostics calls for portable biosensors at the point of care, aiming to improve healthcare by reducing costs, improving access, and increasing quality—what is called the ‘triple aim’. Developing point-of-care sensors that provide high sensitivity, detect multiple analytes, and provide real time measurements can expand access to medical diagnostics for all. Field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensors have several advantages, including ultrahigh sensitivity, label-free and amplification-free detection, reduced cost and complexity, portability, and large-scale multiplexing. They can also be integrated into wearable or implantable devices and provide continuous, real-time monitoring of analytes in vivo, enabling early detection of biomarkers for disease diagnosis and management. This review analyzes advances in the sensitivity, parallelization, and reusability of FET biosensors, benchmarks the limit of detection of the state of the art, and discusses the challenges and opportunities of FET biosensors for future healthcare applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number492002
JournalMeasurement Science and Technology
Issue number49
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • FET
  • biosensor
  • diagnostics
  • electrochemical
  • field-effect transistor
  • point-of-care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Applied Mathematics


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