Admitting spontaneous violations of the Second Law in continuum thermomechanics

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We survey new extensions of continuum mechanics incorporating spontaneous violations of the Second Law (SL), which involve the viscous flow and heat conduction. First, following an account of the Fluctuation Theorem (FT) of statistical mechanics that generalizes the SL, the irreversible entropy is shown to evolve as a submartingale. Next, a stochastic thermomechanics is formulated consistent with the FT, which, according to a revision of classical axioms of continuum mechanics, must be set up on random fields. This development leads to a reformulation of thermoviscous fluids and inelastic solids. These two unconventional constitutive behaviors may jointly occur in nano-poromechanics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number78
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 21 2017


  • Continuum mechanics
  • Fluctuation theorem
  • Second law violations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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