Adhesion of rice flour-based batter to chicken drumsticks evaluated by laser scanning confocal microscopy and texture analysis

A. Mukprasirt, T. J. Herald, D. L. Boyle, K. D. Rausch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The convenience and appeal of battered or breaded products have resulted in a sales increase of 100% since 1980. Because of the rapid growth of the Asian-American population and increasing consumption of rice and rice products, rice flour is a logical alternative for wheat flour in traditional batter formulation. The effects of ingredients used in rice flour-based batters on adhesion characteristic for deep-fat fried chicken drumsticks were studied by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and texture analysis. Raw chicken drumsticks were predusted with egg albumin powder before dipping into batters prepared from combinations of rice flour, yellow corn flour, oxidized cornstarch, methylcellulose, or xanthan gum. The drumsticks were fried at 175 ± 5 C until the internal temperature reached at least 71 C. For LSCM, samples were fixed overnight and were sectioned by vibratome (200 μm) before viewing. Batter adhesion was determined using an attachment specifically designed for chicken drumsticks. Microstructural analysis showed that batter formulated with a 50:50 mixture of rice and corn flours adhered better to drumsticks than batter with other rice flour ratios. Xanthan gum (0.2%) or methylcellulose (0.3%) alone had poor adhesion to chicken skin. However, when combined with other ingredients, xanthan gum increased the amount of batter pick-up before frying by increasing viscosity. Egg albumin significantly facilitated batter adhesion. The results from texture analysis supported the microstructural studies. As rice flour ratio increased from 50 to 70%, the binding force decreased. Rice flour showed potential as an alternative to wheat flour for batter formulas when the appropriate levels of oxidized starch, xanthan gum, and methylcellulose were included in the formulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1356-1363
Number of pages8
JournalPoultry science
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2000


  • Adhesion
  • Batter
  • Chicken drumstick
  • Microscopy
  • Rice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology


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