Adenovirus-vectored African Swine Fever Virus antigen cocktails are immunogenic but not protective against intranasal challenge with Georgia 2007/1 isolate

Shehnaz Lokhandwala, Vlad Petrovan, Luca Popescu, Neha Sangewar, Catherine Elijah, Ana Stoian, Matthew Olcha, Lindsey Ennen, Jocelyn Bray, Richard P. Bishop, Suryakant D. Waghela, Maureen Sheahan, Raymond R.R. Rowland, Waithaka Mwangi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) causes a hemorrhagic disease in swine and wild boars with a fatality rate close to 100%. Less virulent strains cause subchronic or chronic forms of the disease. The virus is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and an outbreak in Georgia in 2007 spread to Armenia, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Lithuania, and Latvia. In August 2018, there was an outbreak in China and in April 2019, ASFV was reported in Vietnam and Cambodia. Since no vaccine or treatment exists, a vaccine is needed to safeguard the swine industry. Previously, we evaluated immunogenicity of two adenovirus-vectored cocktails containing ASFV antigens and demonstrated induction of unprecedented robust antibody and T cell responses, including cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In the present study, we evaluated protective efficacy of both cocktails by intranasal challenge of pigs with ASFV-Georgia 2007/1. A nine antigen cocktail-(I) formulated in BioMize adjuvant induced strong IgG responses, but when challenged, the vaccinees had more severe reaction relative to the controls. A seven antigen cocktail-(II) was evaluated using two adjuvants: BioMize and ZTS-01. The BioMize formulation induced stronger antibody responses, but 8/10 vaccinees and 4/5 controls succumbed to the disease or reached experimental endpoint at 17 days post-challenge. In contrast, the ZTS-01 formulation induced weaker antibody responses, but 4/9 pigs succumbed to the disease while the 5 survivors exhibited low clinical scores and no viremia at 17 days post-challenge, whereas 4/5 controls succumbed to the disease or reached experimental endpoint. Overall, none of the immunogens conferred statistically significant protection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10-20
Number of pages11
JournalVeterinary Microbiology
Volume235
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Adenovirus
  • African Swine Fever Virus
  • Efficacy
  • Prototype subunit vaccine
  • Swine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • veterinary(all)

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