This paper discusses the application of direct adaptive model reference control as it relates to the control of aircraft and weapon systems. Recent extensions in the approach, primarily driven by practical considerations, have led to very successful flight testing. The flight control architectures considered incorporate direct adaptive increments to augment a baseline control signal designed using nonlinear and/or linear robust control methods. Recently applied to a modified guided weapon, this adaptive flight control system was designed and flight tested without wind tunnel measurement of any aerodynamic changes to the modified weapon. This paper discusses the design methodology, practical considerations, extensions incorporated, as well as open problems that remain in making this approach acceptable in the aerospace community.