Tissue-engineered living machines is an emerging discipline that employs complex interactions between living cells and engineered scaffolds to self-assemble biohybrid systems for diverse scientific research and technological applications. Here, we report an adaptive, autonomous biohybrid pumping machine with flow loop feedback powered by engineered living muscles. The tissue is made from skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) and collagen I/Matrigel matrix, which self-assembles into a ring that compresses a soft hydrogel tube connected at both ends to a rigid fluidic platform. The muscle ring contracts in a repetitive fashion autonomously squeezing the tube, resulting in an impedance pump. The resulting flow is circulated back to the muscle ring forming a feedback loop, which allows the pump to respond to the cues received from the flow it generates and adaptively manage its pumping performances based on the feedback. The developed biohybrid pumping system may have broad utility and impact in health, medicine and bioengineering.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number025009
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2022


  • biohybrid machine
  • flow loop feedback
  • pump-bot
  • tissue engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Biochemistry
  • Biotechnology
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomaterials


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