Active, semi-active and hybrid control of structures

T. T. Soong, B. F. Spencer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to research and development of passive and active structural control devices, with particular emphasis on alleviation of wind and seismic response of buildings and bridges. In both areas, serious efforts have been undertaken to develop the structural control concept into a workable technology, and today we have many such devices installed in a wide variety of structures. The focus of this state-of-the-art paper is on active, semi-active and hybrid structural control with seismic applications. These systems employ controllable force devices integrated with sensors, controllers and real-time information processing. This paper includes a brief historical outline of their development and an assessment of the state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice of this exciting, and still evolving, technology. Also included in the discussion are their advantages and limitations in the context of seismic design and retrofit of civil engineering structures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)387-402
Number of pages16
JournalBulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2000
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology


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