TY - JOUR

T1 - Activated hopping and dynamical fluctuation effects in hard sphere suspensions and fluids

AU - Saltzman, Erica J.

AU - Schweizer, Kenneth S.

N1 - Funding Information:
The authors acknowledge the extensive contributions of Dr. Vladimir Kobelev to the development and refinement of the simulation method, as well as many insights on the results. Helpful discussions with Professor Mark Ediger, Professor Sanat Kumar, and Professor Grzegorz Szamel are also gratefully acknowledged. The authors also thank Professor Eric Weeks for sending his experimental data for the MSD. This work was supported by the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Initiative of the National Science Foundation under NSF Award No. DMR-0117792.

PY - 2006

Y1 - 2006

N2 - Single particle Brownian dynamics simulation methods are employed to establish the full trajectory level predictions of our nonlinear stochastic Langevin equation theory of activated hopping dynamics in glassy hard sphere suspensions and fluids. The consequences of thermal noise driven mobility fluctuations associated with the barrier hopping process are determined for various ensemble-averaged properties and their distributions. The predicted mean square displacements show classic signatures of transient trapping and anomalous diffusion on intermediate time and length scales. A crossover to a stronger volume fraction dependence of the apparent nondiffusive exponent occurs when the entropic barrier is of order the thermal energy. The volume fraction dependences of various mean relaxation times and rates can be fitted by empirical critical power laws with parameters consistent with ideal mode-coupling theory. However, the results of our divergence-free theory are largely a consequence of activated dynamics. The experimentally measurable alpha relaxation time is found to be very similar to the theoretically defined mean reaction time for escape from the barrier-dominated regime. Various measures of decoupling have been studied. For fluid states with small or nonexistent barriers, relaxation times obey a simple log-normal distribution, while for high volume fractions the relaxation time distributions become Poissonian. The product of the self-diffusion constant and mean alpha relaxation time increases roughly as a logarithmic function of the alpha relaxation time. The cage scale incoherent dynamic structure factor exhibits nonexponential decay with a modest degree of stretching. A nearly universal collapse of the different volume fraction results occurs if time is scaled by the mean alpha relaxation time. Hence, time-volume fraction superposition holds quite well, despite the presence of stretching and volume fraction dependent decoupling associated with the stochastic barrier hopping process. The relevance of other origins of dynamic heterogeneity (e.g., mesoscopic domains), and comparison of our results with experiments, simulations, and alternative theories, is discussed.

AB - Single particle Brownian dynamics simulation methods are employed to establish the full trajectory level predictions of our nonlinear stochastic Langevin equation theory of activated hopping dynamics in glassy hard sphere suspensions and fluids. The consequences of thermal noise driven mobility fluctuations associated with the barrier hopping process are determined for various ensemble-averaged properties and their distributions. The predicted mean square displacements show classic signatures of transient trapping and anomalous diffusion on intermediate time and length scales. A crossover to a stronger volume fraction dependence of the apparent nondiffusive exponent occurs when the entropic barrier is of order the thermal energy. The volume fraction dependences of various mean relaxation times and rates can be fitted by empirical critical power laws with parameters consistent with ideal mode-coupling theory. However, the results of our divergence-free theory are largely a consequence of activated dynamics. The experimentally measurable alpha relaxation time is found to be very similar to the theoretically defined mean reaction time for escape from the barrier-dominated regime. Various measures of decoupling have been studied. For fluid states with small or nonexistent barriers, relaxation times obey a simple log-normal distribution, while for high volume fractions the relaxation time distributions become Poissonian. The product of the self-diffusion constant and mean alpha relaxation time increases roughly as a logarithmic function of the alpha relaxation time. The cage scale incoherent dynamic structure factor exhibits nonexponential decay with a modest degree of stretching. A nearly universal collapse of the different volume fraction results occurs if time is scaled by the mean alpha relaxation time. Hence, time-volume fraction superposition holds quite well, despite the presence of stretching and volume fraction dependent decoupling associated with the stochastic barrier hopping process. The relevance of other origins of dynamic heterogeneity (e.g., mesoscopic domains), and comparison of our results with experiments, simulations, and alternative theories, is discussed.

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U2 - 10.1063/1.2217739

DO - 10.1063/1.2217739

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:33746848062

SN - 0021-9606

VL - 125

JO - Journal of Chemical Physics

JF - Journal of Chemical Physics

IS - 4

M1 - 044509

ER -