In linear time-invariant systems acoustic reciprocity holds by the Onsager-Casimir principle of microscopic reversibility, and it can be broken only by odd external biases, nonlinearities, or time-dependent properties. Recently it was shown that one-dimensional lattices composed of a finite number of identical nonlinear cells with internal scale hierarchy and asymmetry exhibit nonreciprocity both locally and globally. Considering a single cell composed of a large scale nonlinearly coupled to a small scale, local dynamic nonreciprocity corresponds to vibration energy transfer from the large to the small scale, but absence of energy transfer (and localization) from the small to the large scale. This has been recently proven both theoretically and experimentally. Then, considering the entire lattice, global acoustic nonreciprocity has been recently proven theoretically, corresponding to preferential energy transfer within the lattice under transient excitation applied at one of its boundaries, and absence of similar energy transfer (and localization) when the excitation is applied at its other boundary. This work provides experimental validation of the global acoustic nonreciprocity with a one-dimensional asymmetric lattice composed of three cells, with each cell incorporating nonlinearly coupled large and small scales. Due to the intentional asymmetry of the lattice, low impulsive excitations applied to one of its boundaries result in wave transmission through the lattice, whereas when the same excitations are applied to the other end, they lead in energy localization at the boundary and absence of wave transmission. This global nonreciprocity depends critically on energy (i.e., the intensity of the applied impulses), and reduced-order models recover the nonreciprocal acoustics and clarify the nonlinear mechanism generating nonreciprocity in this system.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Statistics and Probability
- Condensed Matter Physics