## Abstract

Near-future, space-based, radio-And gravitational-wave interferometry missions will enable us to rigorously test whether the Kerr solution of general relativity accurately describes astrophysical black holes, or if it requires some kind of modification. At the same time, recent work has greatly improved our understanding of theories of gravity that modify the Einstein-Hilbert action with terms quadratic in the curvature, allowing us to calculate black hole solutions to (essentially) arbitrary order in a slow-rotation expansion. Observational constraints of such quadratic gravity theories require the calculation of observables that are robust against the expansion order of the black hole solution used. We carry out such a study here and determine the accuracy with respect to expansion order of ten observables associated with the spacetime outside a rotating black hole in two quadratic theories of gravity, dynamical-Chern-Simons and scalar-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We find that for all but the most rapidly rotating black holes, only about the first eight terms in the spin expansion are necessary to achieve an accuracy that is better than the statistical uncertainties of current and future missions.

Original language | English (US) |
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Article number | 024048 |

Journal | Physical Review D |

Volume | 109 |

Issue number | 2 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Jan 15 2024 |

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Nuclear and High Energy Physics