The proinflammatory consequences of obesity are thought to be due, in part, to macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue. There are, however, potential antiinflammatory consequences of obesity that include obesity-associated up-regulation of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). Here we showthat obesity-associated up-regulation of IL-1RA speeds recovery from hypoxia. We found that high-fat diet-fed (HFD) mice recovered from acute hypoxia 5 times faster than normal-diet-fed (ND) mice. HFD mice had a 10-fold increase in serum IL-1RA when compared with ND mice. White adipose tissue (WAT) was a significant source of IL-RA, generating 330 ± 77 pg/mg protein in HFD mice as compared with 15 ± 5 pg/mg protein in ND mice. Peritoneal macrophages isolated from HFD mice showed little difference in IL-1RA production when compared with ND mice, but WAT macrophages from HFD mice generated 11-fold more IL-1RA than those from ND mice. When ND mice were given an ip transfer of the stromal vascular fraction portion of WAT from HFD mice, serum IL-1RA increased 836% and recovery from acute hypoxia was faster than in mice that did not receive a stromal vascular fraction transfer. To determine whether IL-1RA was important to this accelerated recovery, ND mice were administered exogenous IL-1RA prior to hypoxia, and their recovery matched that of HFD mice. Inversely, when IL-1RA was immunoabsorbed in HFD mice with IL-1RA antiserum, recovery from acute hypoxia was attenuated. Taken together these data demonstrate that HFD-induced obesity speeds recovery from hypoxia due to obesity-associated upregulation of IL-1RA.
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