A method for quantifying consistent individual differences in schooling behaviour is presented. This method, which utilizes a school of models, improves on previous methods by removing the unwanted variation that is introduced by live stimulus fish while still providing the physiological experience of schooling to the focal fish. Three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus observed in the model school assay exhibited consistent individual differences in schooling behaviour.
- Gasterosteus aculeatus
- handling stress
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Aquatic Science