A species-level taxonomic review and host associations of glyptapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with an emphasis on 136 new reared species from Costa Rica and Ecuador

Diana Carolina Arias-Penna, James B. Whitfield, Daniel H. Janzen, Winifred Hallwachs, Lee A. Dyer, M. Alex Smith, Paul D.N. Hebert, José L. Fernández-Triana

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The descriptive taxonomic study reported here is focused on Glyptapanteles, a species-rich genus of hymenopteran parasitoid wasps. The species were found within the framework of two independent longterm Neotropical caterpillar rearing projects: Northwestern Costa Rica (Área de Conservación Guanacaste, ACG) and eastern Andes, Ecuador (centered on Yanayacu Biological Station, YBS). One hundred thirtysix new species of Glyptapanteles Ashmead are described and all of them are authored by Arias-Penna. None of them was recorded in both countries; thus, 78 are from Costa Rica and the remaining 58 from Ecuador. Before this revision, the number of Neotropical described Glyptapanteles did not reach double digits. Reasonable boundaries among species were generated by integrating three datasets: Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene sequencing data, natural history (host records), and external morphological characters. Each species description is accompanied by images and known geographical distribution. Characteristics such as shape, ornamentation, and location of spun Glyptapanteles cocoons were imaged as well. Host-parasitoid associations and food plants are also here published for the first time. A total of 88 species within 84 genera in 15 Lepidoptera families was encountered as hosts in the field. With respect to food plants, these wild-caught parasitized caterpillars were reared on leaves of 147 species within 118 genera in 60 families. The majority of Glyptapanteles species appeared to be relatively specialized on one family of Lepidoptera or even on some much lower level of taxonomic refinement. Those herbivores in turn are highly food-plant specialized, and once caterpillars were collected, early instars (1-3) yielded more parasitoids than later instars. Glyptapanteles jimmilleri Arias-Penna, sp. nov. is the first egg-larval parasitoid recorded within the genus, though there may be many more since such natural history requires a more focused collection of eggs. The rate of hyperparasitoidism within the genus was approximately 4% and was represented by Mesochorus spp. (Ichneumonidae). A single case of multiparasitoidism was reported, Copidosoma floridanum Ashmead (Encyrtidae) and Glyptapanteles ilarisaaksjarvi Arias-Penna, sp. nov. both parasitoid species emerged from the caterpillar of Noctuidae: Condica cupienta (Cramer). Bodyguard behavior was observed in two Glyptapanteles species: G. howelldalyi Arias-Penna, sp. nov. and G. paulhansoni Arias-Penna, sp. nov. A dichotomous key for all the new species is provided. The numerous species described here, and an equal number already reared but not formally described, signal a far greater Glyptapanteles species richness in the Neotropics than suggested by the few described previously.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-685
Number of pages685
JournalZooKeys
Volume2019
Issue number890
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Keywords

  • Central America
  • Diversity
  • MtDNA
  • Natural history
  • Parasitoid wasps
  • South America

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Animal Science and Zoology

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