A review of research in the Li-ion battery production and reverse supply chains

Nowsheen Sharmili, Rakesh Nagi, Pingfeng Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Attributed to the rising popularity of electric vehicles, the global demand for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) has been increasing steadily. This creates several potential issues in the raw material supply chain, as the production of the batteries is not sufficient to meet the increasing demand. Due to the variation of the battery cell designs, different manufacturing processes are typically followed at different stages in the battery life cycle, leading to the differences in both economic and environmental performance. In this regard, this review paper discusses the current battery raw material composition and battery manufacturing processes concerning their financial, and environmental impact. Moreover, the end-of-life management of the LIBs has not been acknowledged universally for various reasons, such as economic constraints, technical difficulties, regulatory gaps, environmental impacts, and logistics issues. The review describes the end-of-life management of the Li-ion battery (LIB) from raw material composition to recycling/remanufacturing from the perspective of industrial engineering, manufacturing, chemical engineering, material science, energy, and sustainability management. Finally, corresponding research gaps in production, reverse supply chains, and logistics for LIBs are discussed, and suitable future research directions are provided at the end.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number107622
JournalJournal of Energy Storage
StatePublished - Sep 15 2023


  • Battery recycling
  • Electric vehicles
  • LIB manufacturing
  • Li-ion battery (LIB)
  • Supply chain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'A review of research in the Li-ion battery production and reverse supply chains'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this